Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze a single-center experience in which descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) were treated with a new self-expanding endovascular prosthesis (Medtronic AVE). Methods: Twenty-six patients (13 men, 13 women) with American Society of Anesthesiology grades II to IV and ages ranging from 53 to 92 years (average, 74 years) consented as part of a Phase I Food and Drug Administration–approved trial. Treated lesions included TAAs that were 5 to 10 cm in diameter, 12 diffuse dilations or fusiform aneurysms, and four saccular aneurysms. There were also nine chronic dissections (2 aneurysmal dilations and 7 symptomatic acute recurrent dissections). Three patients (2 with diffuse/fusiform and 1 with dissection) presented with hemothorax, contrast extravasation, or both.